Friday, June 24, 2011

crystal cave amazing pics

crystal cave best pics
crystal cave mostly beautifull pics

crystal cave in beautifull colours

mexceco crystal cave pics

crystal cave pictures

crystal cave in mountains

natural crystal cave pics

crystal cave beautifull & amazing pics

green mamba snake info & pics

green mamba or common mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) is a venomous arboreal snake indigenous to the eastern side of southern Africa. Eastern green mambas are the smallest members of the mamba genus, averaging 1.8 metres (5.9 feet), with known specimens to 3.7 m (12 feet). Green mambas are diurnal. Like most other snakes, the mamba avoids confrontation with humans when possible. However, continued provocation will cause the snake to strike.

green mamba's diet consists primarily of adult and juvenile birds, birds' eggs, and small mammals. Young mambas occasionally eat other reptiles, such as chameleons.
The green mamba is oviparous, laying 6-17 eggs in summer. The eggs are usually laid in a hollow tree among decaying vegetation. Hatchlings measure between 35 and 45 cm (13 to 18 inches) and are venomous from birth. Males of this species are known to engage in combat for mating rights, similar to the combat practiced by male King Cobras.

the venom contains calcicludine and dendrotoxin amongst other neurotoxins. Its venom is similar in composition and action to that of the more famous black mamba but the amount injected is relatively lower, due to the snake's smaller size. Despite this, any bite from a green mamba is potentially fatal and should be regarded as a medical emergency requiring immediate hospital treatment.

black mamba snake

black mamba deengerous snake

black mamba snake mostly poisnes snakes

black mamba snake pics

black mamba snake beautifull pics

black mamba beautifull & mostly dengerous snakes

spitting cobra snake pics

spitting cobra is one of several species of cobras that have the ability to eject venom from their fangs when defending themselves against predators. The venom sprays out in distinctive geometric patterns, using muscular contractions upon the venom glands. These muscles squeeze the glands and force the venom out through forward-facing holes at the tips of the fangs.spitting cobras and vipers have been noted to spit occasionally. Certain predominantly non-spitting Asian cobras have the spitting tendency.

spitting cobra

spitting cobra
spitting cobra

spitting cobra

black cobra snake wallpaper

black cobra dengerous snakes wallpaper
black cobra wallpaper & pics

black cobra pics

black cobra wallpaper
black cobra wallpaper

black cobra

black cobra wallpaper

king kobra snake

king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the world's longest venomous snake, with a length up to 5.6 m (18.5 ft). This species is widespread throughout Southeast Asia and parts of India, and is found mostly in forested areas. King Cobra is a large and powerful snake, averaging 3.6–4 m (12–13 feet) in length and typically weighing about 6 kg (13.2 lb). A particularly large specimen was kept captive at the London Zoo, and grew to 5.7 m (18.8 ft) before being euthanized upon the outbreak of World War II. When the scent of a meal is detected, the snake flicks its tongue to gauge the prey's location (the twin forks of the tongue acting in stereo); it also uses its keen eyesight (king cobras are able to detect moving prey almost 100 m [300 feet] away), intelligence and sensitivity to earth-borne vibration to track its prey. Following envenomation, the king cobra will begin to swallow its struggling prey while its toxins begin the digestion of its victim.

When threatened, it raises up the anterior portion of its body, flattening the neck, showing the fangs and hissing loudly. (Bioacoustic analysis of the "growl" of the king cobra has shown that it differs significantly from other snakes. Generally a typical snake hiss has a broad-frequency span (~3,000 to 13,000 Hz) with a dominant frequency near 7,500 Hz, whereas the "growl" of the king cobra consists of frequencies below 2,500 Hz, with a dominant frequency near 600 Hz.) It is easily irritated by closely approaching objects or sudden movements. The king cobra attacks quickly, and the strike distance is about 2 m (7 feet); people can easily misjudge the safe distance. The king cobra may deliver multiple bites in a single attack, or bite and hold on. they may also feed on other small vertebrates, such as lizards, birds, and rodents. In some cases, the cobra may "constrict" its prey, such as birds and larger rodents, using its muscular body, though this is uncommon.

the king cobra's venom was treated as 1.6 mg/kg – 1.8 mg/kg (which was one of the least venomous elapids). However, in recent toxicology study the LD50 of Chinese king cobra venom was found to be 0.34 mg/kg . The value is lower than that of many Naja species found in the same habitats (such as the Chinese cobra), showing that the king cobra can actually be more venomous than many other cobras. The king cobra is also capable of delivering larger quantities of venom than most other snakes, injecting a 380-600 mg dose in a single bite on average. It was reported that a single bite from this species can kill an adult Asian elephant. king cobra is unique among snakes in that the female king cobra is a very dedicated parent. She makes a nest for her eggs, scraping up leaves and other debris into a mound in which to deposit them, and remains in the nest until the young hatch.
A female usually deposits 20 to 40 eggs into the mound, which acts as an incubator. She stays with the eggs and guards the mound tenaciously, rearing up into a threat display if any large animal gets too close.
Inside the mound the eggs are incubated at a steady 28 °C (82 °F). When the eggs start to hatch, instinct causes the female to leave the nest and find prey to eat so she does not eat her young.

Garter Snakes

Garter snake is a Colubrid snake genus (Thamnophis) common across North America, ranging from Alaska and Canada to Central America. It is the single most widely distributed genus of reptile in North America. Disagreement among taxonomists and sources, such as field guides, over whether two types of snakes are separate species or subspecies of the same species is common. Garter snakes are widespread throughout North America. The common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis), is the only species of snake to be found in Alaska, and is one of the northernmost species of snake in the world, possibly second only to the Crossed Viper, Vipera berus.

However, in the western part of North America, these snakes are more water loving than in the eastern portion. Northern populations hibernate in larger groups than southern ones. Their diet consists of almost any creature that they are capable of overpowering: slugs, earthworms, leeches, lizards, amphibians, birds, fish, toads and rodents. When living near the water, they will eat other aquatic animals. The ribbon snake (Thamnophis sauritus) in particular favors frogs (including tadpoles), readily eating them despite their strong chemical defenses. They can find other snakes by following their pheromone-scented trails. Male and female skin pheromones are so different as to be immediately distinguishable. However, sometimes male garter snakes produce both male and female pheromones. During mating season, this fact fools other males into attempting to mate with these "she-males". This causes the transfer of heat to them in kleptothermy which is an advantage immediately after hibernation so allowing them to be more active.

During mating season, the males mate with several females. In chillier parts of their range, male common garter snakes awaken from brumation first, giving themselves enough time to prepare to mate with females when they finally appear. Males come out of their dens and, as soon as the females begin coming out, surround them. Female garter snakes produce a sex-specific pheromone that attracts male snakes in droves, sometimes leading to intense male-male competition and the formation of mating balls of up to 25 males per female. After copulation, a female leaves the den/mating area to find food and a place to give birth. Female garter snakes are able to store the male's sperm for years before fertilization. Garter snakes cannot kill humans with the small amounts of venom they produce, which is comparatively mild, and they also lack an effective means of delivering it. They do have enlarged teeth in the back of their mouth, but their gums are significantly larger. Whereas most venomous snakes have anterior or forward venom glands, the Duvernoy's gland of garters are posterior (to the rear) of the snake's eyes. The mild poison is spread into wounds through a chewing action.

virunga gorillas

Virunga Heartland features the last remaining habitat of one of the world’s rarest primates, the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei). important research and working to ensure the survival of the mountain gorilla since the late 1970s. This important work has continued in spite of extraordinary circumstances. The human suffering during the Rwandan civil war of the 1990s was incalculable, but without the intervention and continued support of AWF and its partners, the victims of war might also have included the mountain gorilla. Historically, mountain gorillas have been threatened by poaching, loss of habitat from population pressures, civil unrest and spread of disease. And as human populations get closer to gorilla habitats, the gorillas are at greater risk of contracting human diseases, from flu-like problems and pneumonia to ebola.

IGCP, in collaboration with AWF, works with local people to benefit both the gorillas and the community. One of these initiatives is a community gift shop in Rwanda, which sells locally made handicrafts and food items. A percent of the profits go to fund other community projects while the remaining percent is reinvested in the shop. AWF has also worked with the local people and the private sector to design and construct community-owned tourist lodges that substantially benefit the local people who share their backyards with gorillas and other wildlife. Despite the good news of a growing population, mountain gorillas are still critically endangered. We must not be complacent. The slow rate of reproduction among mountain gorillas makes the challenge of keeping the population stable a difficult one.

virunga gorillas

virunga gorillas

virunga gorillas

virunga gorillas hunting

virunga gorillas hunted

Thursday, June 23, 2011

Peringuey's Adder snakes pictures

Peringuey's adder, Peringuey's desert adder, sidewinding adder, more.
Bitis peringueyi is a venomous viper species found in Namibia and southern Angola. The head is short and flat with eyes located on top of the head—an adaptation for hunting. It is covered with strongly keeled scales, the smallest of which are located anteriorly. The eyes are separated by 6-9 scales, while each is surrounded by 10-13 scales. 2-4 scales separate the suborbitals from the supralabials. The latter number 10-14, the sublabials 10-13. it buries itself just beneath the surface of the sand with only its eyes and the tip of its tail exposed.

peringuey's adder dengerous snakes

peringuey's adder Beautifull colour snakes

Tuesday, June 21, 2011

Dengue Mosquito

Dengue fever also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic morbilliform skin rash. Treatment of acute dengue is supportive, using either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease, and intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. The incidence of dengue fever has increased dramatically since the 1960s, with around 50–100 million people infected yearly. Dengue is currently endemic in more than 110 countries. Others have more severe illness (5%), and in a small proportion it is life-threatening. The incubation period (time between exposure and onset of symptoms) ranges from 3–14 days, but most often it is 4–7 days. Therefore, travelers returning from endemic areas are unlikely to have dengue if fever or other symptoms start more than 14 days after arriving home. They bite primarily during the day. Other mosquito species—Aedes albopictus, A. polynesiensis and several A. scutellaris—may also transmit the disease. Humans are the primary host of the virus, but it may also circulate in nonhuman primates. An infection may be acquired via a single bite. A mosquito that takes a blood meal from a person infected with dengue fever becomes itself infected with the virus in the cells lining its gut. About 8–10 days later, the virus spreads to other tissues including the mosquito's salivary glands and is subsequently released into its saliva. The virus seems to have no detrimental effect on the mosquito, which remains infected for life. The dendritic cell moves to the nearest lymph node. Meanwhile, the virus genome is replicated in membrane-bound vesicles on the cell's endoplasmic reticulum, where the cell's protein synthesis apparatus produces new viral proteins, and the viral RNA is copied. Immature virus particles are transported to the Golgi apparatus, the part of the cell where the some of the proteins receive necessary sugar chains (glycoproteins). The now mature new viruses bud on the surface of the infected cell and are released by exocytosis. They are then able enter other white blood cells (such as monocytes and macrophages).
The initial reaction of infected cells is to produce the interferon, a cytokine that raises a number of defenses against viral infection through the innate immune system by augmenting the production of a large group of proteins (mediated by the JAK-STAT pathway). Some serotypes of dengue virus appear to have mechanisms to slow down this process.

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