Bullfrogs grow on average to be about 3.5 to 6.0 inches (9–15 cm) in body length (although there are records of some up to 8.0 inches), legs add another 7–10 inches (17–25 cm) to length. The adult bullfrog skeleton is representative of tetrapod vertebrates, comprising an axial skeleton (skull and vertebrae) and an appendicular skeleton (pectoral girdle and forelimbs, pelvic girdle and hindlimbs). Ranids, however, lack ribs. American bullfrogs live longer in warm weather. They have been widely introduced across North America (see range map). The original, naturally determined range did not include the far western regions where it is found today. The orbits open ventrally through the roof of the mouth to accommodate eye retraction during locomotion and swallowing. The skull bears a continuous row of tiny teeth on the maxilla and premaxilla and a pair of small vomerine teeth on the palate. The mandible is toothless.
In the mating grasp, or amplexus, the male rides on top of the female, grasping her with his forelimbs posterior to her forelimbs. The female bullfrog deposits her eggs in the water and the male simultaneously releases sperm.
Breeding begins in late spring or early summer. Males defend and call from territories, attracting females into a territory to mate. The call is reminiscent of the roar of a bull, hence the frog's common name. A female may produce up to 20,000 eggs in one clutch.